Monday, May 18, 2020
We all know the cartoon of the cave man bearing his stone axe. How crude life must have been, we may think, when there was no metal. But stone is a worthy servant. In fact, stone tools have been found that are more than 2 million years old. This means that stone technology is not something Homo sapiens inventedÃ¢â¬âwe inherited it from earlier hominid species. And stone tools are still around. I dont mean stone used for construction, but things you can hold in your hand and do stuff with. Stone Grinding Tools Start with grinding. One stone tool thats still in common kitchen use is the mortar and pestle, better than anything for turning things to a powder or paste. (Those are made of marble or agate.) And maybe you seek out stoneground flour for your baking needs. (Grindstones are made of quartzite and similar rocks.) Perhaps the highest use of stone today along these lines is in the tough, heavy granite rollers used for grinding and conching chocolate. And lets not forget chalk, the soft stone used for writing on blackboards or sidewalks. Edged Stone Tools But what makes me light up is edged stone tools. If you spend enough time in suitable country, one day youll pick up an ancient arrowhead. The utter coolness of the technology really comes home when you look at one of these stone tools close up, like some of the delicate points at arrowheads.com. The technique of making them is called knapping (with a silent K), and it involves striking stones with harder stones, or highly controlled pressure flaking with pieces of antler and similar materials. It takes years of practice, and you cut your hands a lot until you become an expert. The type of stone used is typically chert. Chert is a form of quartz with an exceedingly fine grain. Different types are called flint, agate, and chalcedony. A similar rock, obsidian, forms from high-silica lava and is the best knapping stone of all. These stone toolsÃ¢â¬âpoints, blades, scrapers, axes and moreÃ¢â¬âare often the only evidence we have from archaeological sites. They are cultural fossils, and like true fossils, they have been collected and classified for many years around the world. Modern geochemical techniques like neutron activation analysis, coupled with growing databasesÃ of the sources of toolmaking stone, are allowing us to trace the movements of prehistoric peoples and the patterns of trade among them. Stone Tools Today Another thing that makes me light up is knowing that this technology is being revived and preserved by a bunch of fanatic knappers. Theyll show you how at a local knap-in, theyll sell you videotapes and books, and of course theyll put their passion on the web. The best knapping websites, I think, are Knappers Anonymous and flintknapping.com, but if you want to follow the arrowhead trail to the scientific end of things, start with the lithics page from Kris Hirst, the About Archaeology Guide. The knapper/artist Errett Callahan has devoted his career to reproducing all the ancient tools, then moving beyond them. He and other practitioners have brought this technology into what he calls the Post-Neolithic period. His fantasy knives will make your jaws drop. PS: Obsidian scalpels are the sharpest in the world, and plastic surgeons rely on them more and more for operations where scarring must be minimized. Truly, the stone edge is here to stay.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Use household materials to make a bubble rainbow. This is a safe, easy, and fun project that explores how bubbles and colors work. Bubble Rainbow Materials a sockliquid dishwashing soapplastic bottlefood coloring You can probably use a bubble solution for this project, but I got much better bubbles using the dishwashing liquid. Any soft drink or water bottle will do, but firm bottles are easier to use than thinner, flimsy ones. Make a Homemade Bubble Snake Wand Youre going to make a fat snake of bubbles. Its actually a great project even without the coloring. Heres what you do: Cut the bottom off of the plastic bottle. If this is a project for kids, leave this part to an adult.Slip a sock over the cut end of the bottle. If you like, you can secure it with a rubber band or ponytail holder. Otherwise, a small sock fits just fine or you can hold the sock over the bottle manually.Squirt dishwashing liquid into a bowl or plate. Mix in a little water to thin it out a bit.Dip the sock end of the bottle into the dishwashing solution.Blow through the mouth of the bottle to make a bubble snake. Cool, right?To make a rainbow, stripe the sock with food coloring. You can make any colors you like. Rainbow colors are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. For most food coloring kits, this would be red, red plus yellow, yellow, green, blue, and blue plus red. Apply more coloring for a more intense rainbow or to recharge the sock if you need more bubble solution.Rinse yourself with water when youre done. The food coloring will stain fingers, clothes, etc., so its a messy project. This is best done outdoors while wearing old clothes. You can rinse your homemade bubble wand and let it air dry if you wish to use it again.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The 3D seismic survey in East Godavari mangrove area has short-term effects on the environment. The surveyed area includes the main six reserved mangrove patches in East coast of India and the process of lying of geophones cables and shoot hole drilling for 3D seismic exploration may lead to the destruction of habitat through clearing the vegetation. Primary sources of disturbances associated with exploration include equipment transportation inside the mangrove, vehicle traffic, shot hole drilling activities, and underground blasting. Seismic exploration survey has the potential to affect wildlife either by increasing noise and human activity around them, or seismic shooting process. The seismic activities can even lead to long-term habitat alteration. Though the exploration activities is often a short term process, extending over a few months, the footprint of exploration activities especially in the high wildlife sensitive area can be quite large (Jorgenson et al. 2010). Seismic ex ploration can alter plant community structure, directly affecting fauna of that area on a long-term basis (Jorgenson et al. 2010). There is evidence to suggest wildlife may react to seismic activity with elevated metabolic rates (Bradshaw et al. 1998), and the cumulative effects of repeated disturbance of individuals may affect population reproductive rates if exploration is widespread (Bradshaw et al. 1998). Extensive studies are conduced to estimate the impact of seismic activities on marine
A self-managed team is a group of employees thatÃ¢â¬â¢s responsible and accountable for all or most aspects of producing a product or delivering a service. Self-managing work team effectiveness Is defined as both high performance and employee quality of work life Traditional organizational structures assign tasks to employees depending on their specialist skills or the functional department within which they work. To get work done, many companies organize employees into self-managing teams that are basically left to run themselves with some guidance from an external leader. We will write a custom essay sample on Self managed teams or any similar topic only for you Order Now At Digital, Ayr, management had to learn to step back and let the groups reach their own declslons and In so doing time taken to actually management the organization was Increased. Although a lot of consideration was given to the transltlon it contributed to the success of the approach. Self-managed teams have greater ownership of the tasks they perform and the end product or service they deliver. Self-managed teams tend to be less costly and more productive than employees working within a traditional hierarchical structure because the team performs both technical and management tasks. Team members may also flll In for each other to cover holidays and absences. Decisions made by self-managed teams are more effective because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re made by the people who know most about the job. A sector in Trinidad and Tobago where self-managed teams can be seen quite often is in the Public Service. Employees in various departmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ namely human resources and finance are generally self-managed teams. Employees generally plan and schedule the workflow and manage annual leave and absence, in addition to minor technical tasks. Management and technical responslbllltles are typically rotated among the eam members as career advancement In the clerical stream usually allows for this. Although these teams may be seen as a cohesive self-managed team where there is a sense of trust and respect between team members, in the public service you find overly cohesive teams which leads to Ã¢â¬Å"groupthinkÃ¢â¬ : You usually find team members most if the times conforming with team norms than raise issues that may upset other team members. This leads to reduced effort or stifled innovation. Teams may struggle to make the transition from supervisor-led management to self-management, either ue to lack of Interpersonal skills or poor Implementation of the self-managed team concept within the service. The concept of using groups of cross-functional employees in modern business in the form of a team has been around in the United States for quite some time now. Self-directed teams have been used in Great Britain and Sweden since the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. What both regions have realised or learnt is that particular attention must be placed on development of the teams. Development Is an Important component of self-management. That Includes tralnlng In decision- aking, problem solving, communication and team-building. Team-building efforts and programs, which take time, energy, and patience, are an essential component of a successful self-managed team. As it relates to how they manage and carry out their tasks self-managed teams are autonomous, although they still require guidance from leaders within the organizational hierarchy. The essential challenge for any team Is to balance empowerment with accountablllty. It must report to that hierarchy Important to note is that using a self-managed team is no solution, nor should it be mbraced as a belief. How to cite Self managed teams, Papers
Criminal justice in America is divided between federal and state governments, and at each level power is diffused further, shared by three branches-executives, legislative, judicial- in a system referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"separation of powers. Ã¢â¬ In each state, authority is shared by government at the municipal, county, and state levels. Although the operations of criminal justice agencies lack any significant level of coordination, each affects the others. A disproportionate share of the criminal justice goes to the police. Law reflects the need to protect the person, the property, and norms of those who have the power to enact law. Probations and parole are linked to particular segments of the criminal justice system and a system of laws most frequently invoked against a distinct type of offender: the poor. Probationers or parolees who are not arrested may have been rehabilitated, or they may be more successful at avoiding detection. The bible-based practice of placing an offender who was unable to pay compensation in involuntary servitude for no more than six years can be seen as a precursor to the concept of probation. We will write a custom essay sample on Probation and Parole or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Classicalism challenged disparate justice by emphasizing equality founded on a social contract. The classical concept of free will is the basis for the concept of mens rea in the contemporary justice system. The classical view provides the basis for determinate sentences. Free will is an oversimplification because oneÃ¢â¬â¢s position in socity determines the degree of choice with respect to comminting crimes. Neoclassicalism maintains a basic believe in free will while paving the way for the entry of mitigation and aggravation into criminal justice. Punishment can be justified only if crime is freely chosen, intentional, and rational, that is, reasoned behavior. That contrast with positivism and determinism-the criminal could not do otherwise. Guit of a criminal defendant must be established beyond a reasonable doubt, as opposed to the preponderance of the evidence, which is the standard in some juvenile cases and probation and parole revocation hearings. After a finding or plea of guilty, a probation officer will search court records; examine of the reports, such as psychiatric and school records; and interview the defendant, spouse, employer, arresting officer, and victim in order to prepare a presentence report that frequently contains the probation officerÃ¢â¬â¢s sentencing recommendation. The extensive use of probation and parole is not based on some Ã¢â¬Å"liberal do-gooderÃ¢â¬ notions, but on the reality imposed by economics-the cost of imprisonment. A probation agency provides three basic services to the courts: supervision of adult offenders, presentence reports, and juvenile services. The term probation was applied by John Augustus to the practice of bailing offenders out of court, followed by a period of supervised living in the community. The spread of probation was accelerated by the juvenile court movement, which started in 1899 in Chicago and developed rapidly. Many early probation officers where volunteers or worked part-time. Probation is administered by more than 2000 separate agencies usually located in the executive branch of state government where it is typically combined with parole. In the larger states, it is usually administered at the county level. Probation at the state level promotes uniformity; at the county level, diversity. A crime such as murder, kidnapping, and rape usually precludes a sentence of probation, as do second or third felony convictions. A judge considering a sentence of probation considers the quality of service provided by a probation agency. Through a probation subsidy, the state reimburses the county for offenders placed on probation instead of being sentenced to a state prison. Conditions of probation in different probation agencies typically exhort the probationer to live a law abiding life, work, and support dependents. The court can impose any conditions of probation that are reasonably related to the rehabilitation of the offender or the protection of the community. Probationers have a diminished expectation of privacy. Restitution and community service are popular conditions of probation. Pretrial release is an effort to reduce jail overcrowding. Some pretrial release programs provide for supervision. PTR programs frequently use prediction scales to determine eligibility. Pretrial diversion programs aim to remove the defendant from the criminal justice system without the need for prosecution. The primary purpose of a presentence investigation is to provide the judge with relevant sentencing information. The PSI often contains a victim impact statement. Information in PSI is derived from interviews, records, and reports. Probation officers need to understand terms used by police agencies as well as medical and psychological terminology. For misdemeanors and less serious felonies, the Psi is often short form. The use of sentencing guidelines is an attempt to limit judicial discretion and reduce sentence disparity. Because judges tend to follow the probation officerÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendation, the psi has been criticized for providing too much power to the probation officer.
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about the CSL Versus Macquarie Group. Answer: Introduction In this report, the researcher analyses and compares the two companies. CSL is an Australian blood and serum product company where as MACQUARIE group is an investment banking group of Australia (Boyle, 2014). CSL is a bio therapeutics company that helps in developing and delivering innovative biotherapies in order to save lives of human beings (Tan, 2015). MACQUARIE group is one of the leading suppliers of financial and investment and funds. The various operations combined with effective central position have effectively helped the company in achieving profitability. The various operations combined with an effective central position have effectively helps the company in achieving profitability. The CSL Company is meeting its objectives by providing best services to the people. In this report, the researcher compares and contrasts the two companies with respect to their mission and vision, values, objectives, goals and corporate social responsibility of the organization. The stakehold ers of the two companies are also compared by the researcher. Vision and Mission Comparison and contrast between values and mission of CSL and MACQUARIE Group The main mission of MACQUARIE group is to realize the opportunity in order to provide benefits to its clients, stakeholders or staffs whereas the mission of the CSL is to develop and deliver innovative biotherapies in order to save lives of human beings. The main difference between the mission of CSL and MACQUARIE group is that, CSL saves lives of people by innovating biotherapies whereas the MACQUARIE group provides benefits to its clients by realizing opportunities. The visions of the two companies are also different. CSL works in order to fulfill the needs of the people by providing best services to the people who are suffering from life-threatening diseases. MACQUARIE Group on the other hand, operates effectively in order to meet the expectation of its staff and for developing its financial growth (Maitland, 2013). The vision of CSL includes customer focus, innovation, and commitment. The company is very much passionate about the service it provides to the customers. The company fulfills the needs of the people by addressing life-threatening diseases (Csl.com.au, 2016).It conducts various medical researchers in order to support patients and for spreading awareness about the educational program among people. The main dedication of the company is to research on the plasma protein that helps in maintaining a robust product pipeline. The vision of MACQUARIE Group is based on the principles of opportunity (Macquarie.com, 2016). The company operates with integrity within a strong and effective management framework. The long-term principles used by the company are based on the expectation of its staff. Values of the organizations Comparison and contrast on the values of CSL and MACQUARIE Group The main aspiration of MACQUARIE Group is to be a pre-eminent supplier of financial services (Maitland, 2013). The culture of the company is presented by the way they work and act together. The values of the company include integrity, commitment of the client, teamwork, fulfillment the needs of the people, striving towards profitability and highest standards. On the other hand, values of CSL create and set a foundation in order to work across the organization (Charlton et al., 2014). The company serves as a tool in the decision making purpose. The values of CSL include focus on the customers, integrity, innovation, collaboration and superior performance. The company is very much passionate about meeting the needs of the customers. The company always tries to provide the best service to the peoples. The values of both the company diversifies. The main values of MACQUARIE Group are to fulfill the needs of the people by achieving efficient profitability and standards whereas the CSL Company provides efficient service to its customers and the service provided by the company must be of superior quality (McCluskie et al., 2013). The company provides service to the people against life- threatening diseases irrespective of the profit gained by it. Objectives and Goals of the organizations Comparison and contrast between objectives and goals of CSL and MACQUARIE Group The objectives and goals of CSL are effective and are based on the SMART model. The SMART model of CSL include: Specific: The main objective of CSL is to develop and deliver innovative biotherapies in order to save lives of human beings. The company is very much passionate about the service it provides to its customers (Danhof, 2013). The company mainly focuses on the service in order to save lives of the people from life-threatening diseases. Measurable: The Company is meeting its objectives by providing best services to the people. In the year 2015, the company saves life of millions of people as influenza vaccine joined forces to create Seqirus (Behring, 2013). The company became leading manufacturer of US$24 billion of plasma industry. Attainable: The objectives set by the organization are attainable, and the company is achieving it by providing excellent service to its customers. Relevant: The Company has various resources in order to achieve the objectives. The resources of the company include vaccine, pharmaceuticals, plasma products that help in saving the lives of millions of people around the world (Fokkink et al., 2015). With the help of its resources, the company became the best service provider. Figure 1: SMART objectives of CSL (Source: Fokkink et al., 2015, pp.56). Time Bound: The company wants achieves its objectives when the people are struggling because of the life threating diseases. The company provides the best service in order to rescue the life of people (Hep, 2016). CSL achieves its objectives when people are in need. On the other hand, MACQUARIE Group is effectively using the SMART model in order to achieve their objectives and goals. Specific: The main objective of MACQUARIE group is to realize the opportunity in order to provide benefits to its clients, stakeholders or staffs (Kim et al., 2015)MACQUARIE Group operates properly in order to meet the expectation of its staff and for developing its financial growth. Measurable: The Company is meeting its goals and objectives by providing financial help to stakeholders, clients, etc. (Aulich, 2014). In the year 2015, the company provided 34 million dollar help to different organization of Australia in order to promote their business. Figure 2: SMART objectives of MACQUARIE (Source: Danhof, 2013, pp.67). Attainable: The objective of MACQUARIE Group is attainable as the investment group is assisting help to different stakeholders and clients of Australia. Relevant: MACQUARIE group has sufficient revenue which is used by the company as resources in order to provide financial help to different people, clients, and stakeholders. The company provides the best service in order to help people financially (Lewis, 2013). CSL achieves its objectives when people are in need. Time Bound: The Company achieves its objectives when people need financial help from the investment bank. Corporate Social Responsibility Comparison and contrast between corporate social responsibility of CSL and MACQUARIE Group The corporate social responsibility of CSR is to conduct business ethically and to contribute the social, environmental well-being of the communities. The corporate responsibility of the company includes: Developing and researching: The Company develops and improves the protein-based therapies in order to save the lives of the patients (Danhof, 2013). The therapies are of standard quality: the company maintains the quality of therapies at all stages of the product cycle in order to provide safe therapies to people. Positive Work Environment: CSL provides a positive environment for work by ensuring the safety of its employees (Behring, 2013). On the other hand, the corporate social responsibility of MACQUARIE Group includes: Financing: The Company encourages advisors to think innovatively in order to address different challenges of client and for creating new opportunities (Aulich, 2014). Asset Finance: The Company provides financial help globally, and helps is solving management, which is the main aim of the company. Capital Market and Advisory: It includes corporate finance, equity, and capital market debt and principle investment (Fokkink et al., 2015). Research: The research market of the company is on the forefront. They cover the whole world in order to insights into the issues and trends that help in driving companies and industries. Both the companies have different corporate social responsibility. MACQUARIE uses financial values that encourage the advisors to think innovatively in order to address different challenges of the client and for creating new opportunities whereas CSL develops and improves the protein-based therapies in order to save the lives of the patients (McCluskieet al., 2013). The company maintains the quality of therapies in all stages of the product cycle in order to provide safe therapies to people. Stakeholders Comparison and contrast between stakeholders of CSL and MACQUARIE Group The stakeholders of MACQUARIE group are responsible for managing the company. The objectives of the company can be achieved or affected by the stakeholders. The main aim of the stakeholders is to help people financially by increasing the growth of the company whereas the stakeholders of CSL took proper steps in helping people. They cover various operations including education for health services, information, support of patient, etc. (Lewis, 2013). The company uses different strategies in order to engage the stakeholders. The approaches used by them include meetings, surveys, visit to major suppliers, etc. Both companies namely CSL and MACQUARIE have different stakeholders as mentioned in the corporate statement. The stakeholders of CSL use different operations including education for health services and information in order to help the patient (Maitland, 2013).The MACQUARIE Group financially helps the people by spreading awareness about its investing approaches.The stakeholders help in conducting various medical researchers in order to support patients and for spreading awareness about the educational program among people. The main dedication of CSL is to research on the plasma protein that helps in maintaining a robust product pipeline. The stakeholder of MACQUARIE Group ismainly reflects the principles of opportunity (Joshi et al., 2013). The company operates with integrity within a strong and effective management framework. Conclusion It is concluded that both the companies of different organizational goals as per the SMART objectives. The CSL focuses on several approaches, which include customer focus, innovation, and commitment. The company is very much passionate about the service it provides to the customers. The MACQUARIE Group is based on the principles of opportunity. The company operates with integrity within strong and effective management framework.The values of both the company are different. The MACQUARIE Group fulfill the needs of the people by achieving efficient profitability and standards whereas The CSL Company provides efficient service to its customers and the service provided by the company must be of superior quality. The researcher observed that the objectives and goals of CSL and MACQUARIE Group are effective, as per the SMART model. The various operations combined with effective central position have effectively helps the company in achieving profitability. The CSL Company is meeting its ob jectives by providing best services to the people.The MACQUARIE have sufficient amount of money, which is used by the company as resources in order to provide financial help. In the year 2015, the company saves life of millions of people as influenza vaccine joined forces to create Seqirus. The company became leading manufacturer of US$24 billion of plasma industry as analyzed by the researcher. References Aulich, C., 2014. Airport Privatisation in Australia: A Tale of Three Cities.Applied Finance and Accounting,1(1), pp.1-11. Behring, C.S.L., 2013. 32 Grifols. Boyle, P., 2014. Australia's biggest investment bank in cluster bomb'hall of shame'.Green Left Weekly, (1035), p.3. Charlton, K., Donald, S., Ormiston, J. and Seymour, R., 2014. Impact Investments: Perspectives for Australian charitable trusts and foundations. Csl.com.au. (2016).CSL Ltd is a leader in plasma protein biotherapeutics. [online] Available at: https://www.csl.com.au/about [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016]. Danhof, M., 2013, August. Lecture 4: Pharmacology. InWORKSHOPS FR FEBRUAR JULI 2014(p. 5). Fokkink, W.J.R., Falck, D., Santbergen, T.C., Huizinga, R., Wuhrer, M. and Jacobs, B.C., 2015.Comparison of Fc N-Glycosylation of Pharmaceutical Products of Intravenous Immunoglobulin G.PloS one,10(10), p.e0139828. Hep, C., 2016.Specialty Pharma Journal.Sat,6, p.11. Hyatt, D., 2014. CSL industry site tour.Equity,28(4), p.15. Joshi, M., Cahill, D., Sidhu, J. and Kansal, M., 2013. Intellectual capital and financial performance: an evaluation of the Australian financial sector.Journal of intellectual capital,14(2), pp.264-285. Kim, H.M., OConnor, K.B. and Han, S.S., 2015. The spatial characteristics of global property investment in Seoul: A case study of the office market.Progress in Planning,97, pp.1-42. Lewis, G., 2013. Australia's regulatory panopticon.AQ-Australian Quarterly,84(4), p.26. Macquarie.com. 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In2016 Conference (60th), February 2-5, 2016, Canberra, Australia(No. 235412).Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society. Wilson, G., 2014. Money for nothing.Money,19(297).